Posts by admin:
- The contest is open to all.
- The Focal theme of SMSF – 2017 is ‘Nationalism’
- Duration of the short film is 3 to 5 minutes.
- The short films shall be prepared by the mobile cameras.
- Registration Fee for participating in the contest is Rs. 250/-
- Last date to submit the short film is on or before 30th April 2017
- The film must be shot entirely on a mobile device (smartphones, tablets, GoPro) in HD video.Multiple mobile devices can be used, but no non mobile footage may be included.
- Productions are welcome in any language, but subtitles in English are advisable (films in English or Malayalam don’t need subtitles). The mobile short films may be silent also.
- Any software to edit video and audio as well as colour correction or special effects is allowed.
- Use of additional equipment (professional or homemade) is allowed, including (but not limited to) external microphone, wide angle lens, lighting, tripod, broom handle, basmati cam.
- The film must be an original production. It may not infringe on the copyright, trademark or other rights of any individual.Films must have full clearance for all content, including music.
- The participants should submit their short films using one of the following file formats:MOV, MPEG4, AVI, WMV, MPEGPS, FLV, 3GPP, WebM
- Several films can be submitted per filmmaker/crew. For each submission there will be separate registration fees.
- The Participant maintains at all times the rights to his/her film entry. However, he/she grants Samaagati, the right to present the submitted film, make it publicly available, distribute it and make it available for third party viewing unrestrictedly in terms of location and frequency.Furthermore, the Participant expressly agrees to his/her film being made public via Indian Ruminations (www.indianruminations.com) and ‘Samaagaiti’ Youtube Channel and if applicableSamaagati will refer to or create links to the film in various publications or on the Internet.
- By submitting a film, the Participant declares that he/she owns all rights (including all third-party rights) with regard to the submitted film. In the event that one or more persons are clearly recognizable, or the sound or music of third parties can be heard in the film, those involved must agree that the film be made public. The respective declaration of consent must be made available if requested by Samaagati, Should third parties nevertheless assert claims resulting from the infringement of their rights, the Participant declares the organizersfree from all said claims. The person who submits the film is solely responsible for its content (image, sound, data, texts etc.).
- Organizers reserve the right to exclude from the contest, the Participants who have breached the Contest Regulations.
- Entry deadline is April 30th, 2017
Samaagati in collaboration with Indian Ruminations
SAMAAGATI MOBILE SHORT FILM FESTIVAL – 2017
We believe a one minute movie explains wellthan a 1000 words. We wish to inspire, motivate and promote creative minds to engage and indulge in socially relevant issues and events. Hence Samaagati in collaboration with Indian Ruminations organizes SMSF 2017. In connection with Samaagati International Interdisciplinary Conference 2017, SMSF organizes a Mobile Short Film Contest on the theme, Nationalism. A film entry participates in the contest if it is not less than 3 minutes and not longer than 5 minutes and is received before the entry deadline.
Best 5 Short Films will be awarded Cash Prizes
Five winner short films will be uploaded to ‘Samaagati’ YouTube Channel
By enrolling for SMSF -2017, the participant accepts the following Regulations on behalf of him/herself and any crewmembers, who may also participate
For more details
The Contest Director
Samaagati Mobile Short Film Festival – 2017
Email: samaagatiforum @gmail.com
Phone: +91 7561096997, +91 9971084789
It was in 7th January 1997, women for the first time entered Palayam Jumma Masjid in Thiruvananthapuram to offer Ramzan prayers. Yes, it never happened before. This shrine is one of the most respected and admired Muslim pilgrimage in the state. Even though women all around the world were allowed to offer prayers in Mosques, they were not permitted to do so in the southern part of Kerala, thanks to religious leaders and strong beliefs. Now this Mosque Entry Proclamation of 1997 was realized because Ahmed Kutty, the Imam of the shrine, took strong stand in support of it.
But why it took thirty years for women to enter this Masjid after it inaugurated in 1967? Women were entering mosques for years elsewhere even in conservative nations like Saudi Arabia. The reason is very common sensical. It is the custom. No one knows whose custom or whether there are any textual references in Holy Quran forbidding her presence in the Sanctum Santorum of Masjids. Now it is becoming twenty years after women started to offer prayers here; nothing unholy happened. Nothing unislamic happened. So who want, and for what, women away from Mosques?
Similar religious restrictions, backed innocently by state, still exist in the same progressive society. Sabarimala is only five hour journey from Palayam; it still restricts women in the temple. This temple is one of the biggest pilgrimage centres in the world but a discriminate woman by saying Lord Ayyappa is celibate. There are other claims too but truth is the conservative as well as patriarchal social system will not accept women as equal. It is not wise to believe that progressive young generation will consider the mythical Ayyappa will view woman as sex symbol only as celibacy or brahmacharya will not stop someone from meeting a woman.
Agasthya Mountain is just three hours away from the capital of God’s own Country where the state is not permitting women to enter ‘respecting’ both local tribe’s beliefs and safety reasons. It was a devaprashnam restricted womens’ entry in the sanctum sanctorum of Lord Krishna temple (Malayinkeezhu) around 2000s. The restriction still continues citing local people’s demand. We have many such examples in all religions and communities. Women are goddesses but must be kept as secondary citizen!!! When one more women’s day passes, let’s decide whether we need more goddesses or equal women.
It is definitely worse of times – at least for writers and other activists who live with freedom to express. It was two weeks back great literary figure and Jnanapith winner late Thakazhy Sivasankara Pillai was attacked by Araya Samudhayam of Allappuzha (a coastal region in Kerala) alleging that the literary figure insulted the community’s feelings in his magnum opus ‘Chemmeen’. This work is considered as one of the best piece of literature in the Malayalam language (which narrates the life of fisher folk in this area) and later adapted to celluloid by Ramu Kariat. The film received international attention and awards. Now it is the golden jubilee year of the releasing of film. The government and other cultural society decided to celebrate the historical event but, rather as a shocking surprise, the community about whom the novel speaks about declared that they will not allow anyone to enter the region for such a celebration.
This is happening not in vacuum. Intolerance towards disagreements became a political open agenda than a fashion nowadays. Throughout the nation it is happening. The murder of Krishna Kirwale at Maharashtra is just another addition to this list (still police says that it is nothing political but personal arguments with Prof. Krishna ended up in his murder. But no murder is created by a single particular reason. It is not only a physical act but the end result of many past events and thoughts.). It is just one week back Tarek Fatah was given a fatwa by Muslim fundamentalists. It was two months back M T Vasudevan Nair was attacked by Modi brigade because he spoke against demonetization. We can see the names of Sachidanandhan, Amritha Peetam, A K Ramanujan, Perumal Murugan and many others. Very often we can see this kind of attack on those who disagrees in FB, whatever the topic is, by those who believe in ‘freedom’ and ‘equality’. Members of discussion groups and cultural forums were getting attacked at campuses, university spaces, small towns etc. which is not even get noticed.
We respect individuals and communities right to protest but we demand same respect from you towards other’s freedom to express. Please don’t take the quantitative figure of your supporters as a reason to suppress others because when time pass it is not the might of muscles but the reason of ideas will dominate the society. It is better to disagree than destroying each other. As organic creatures, we will have difference of opinion among us but it is better to celebrate our disagreements.
March 2017 Issue
Science & Environment
Art & Music
Theatre & Film
Videos and many more…
visit Indian Rumination
Enjoy reading the March Issue
Contribute to Indian Ruminations with your writings
It was on 6th January 2017 evening Jishnu Pranoy committed suicide in his hostel premises. He was the first year Dept. of Engineering student of NECRC, Pampady, Thrissur district of Kerala. According to what we know he was depressed after the accusation of malpractice in the first semester University examination by teachers on the same day afternoon. He left college office around 5.45 pm to hostel room where he later found hanged. The incident is leading to many debates on the non-democratic atmosphere of self financing colleges in Kerala.
Jishnu is originally from Nadapuram, an ordinary Malabar village with little urban amneties in the district of Calicut. He was not just a ‘mechanical’ mugging one but showed more interests in additional reading and experimentation. He dreamed for soaring skies (like Rohit Vemula) and used time in order to realize them. He even named his future company as Commons. He shared his dreams with his loving ones. He always spoke with a smile and also dare to raise questions. He raised questions in the class room to teachers for which they struggled to respond. It is not easy to say whether he tried to copy from a fellow student’s paper or not; but even if one did that how s/he should be treated?.
It is not a question about Jishnu, Rohit Vemula, Jossy Joy or Rajani S. Anand. What should be the nature of a campus? What should be the nature of teacher-student relationship? How student as young ones should be treated when committing mistakes? Do our teachers whether in public or in private colleges, trained professionally for the job? Do we have an institutional mechanism to address if any injustice happened against a student because he or she is a student, at the college or University level? Like this, questions are many. Do we have answers? No, we don’t. but asking such questions can alter the structural deface of our campus spaces.
“Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high
Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way
Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.”
Freedom is something which has been dreamed for and cherished by not only human beings but all other living beings in the world since time immemorial. History’s record books show us how many great souls suffered how much amount of pain in order to attain the level of freedom we humans enjoy in our world today. Freedom of expression is one vital aspect of the term ‘freedom’. It includes the right to simply speak one’s opinion out however extreme it is and all the creative expressions in the world. Of course there are restrictions, as the general statement goes, one’s freedom to swing his/her hand is only up to his neibhour’s nose. Nobody has any right to hurt others physically or mentally. And there are clear rules and laws enacted to regulate all types of freedom.
Of late unfortunately there has been a kind of intolerance shown towards freedom of expression in the creative field, in the political arena and even in campuses among students. It is really threatening and one is compelled to think whether the world is really heading towards a more civilized state or taking a reverse course. It is very difficult to draw a line between the expressions which hurt a sect of people and which don’t, whatever it may be, what we can ask for is an educated, cultured and tolerant but fearless society.
Sandhya S.N & J.T Jayasingh
SAMAAGATI in collaboration with Indian Ruminations
SAMAAGATI INTERNATIONAL INTERDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE 2017
12 – 14 May 2017
at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
The government on Wednesday announced Padma awards to citizens of the country in recognition of their distinguished contribution in various spheres.
These awards are conferred by the President of India at ceremonial functions which are held at Rashtrapati Bhawan usually around March/ April every year. This year the President of India has approved conferment of Padma Awards to 89 persons as per the list below. The list comprises of 7 Padma Vibhushan, 7 Padma Bhushan and 75 Padma Shri Awardees. 19 of the awardees are women and the list also includes 5 persons from the category of foreigners, NRIs, PIOs and 6 posthumous awardees.
Following is the list of Padma awardees:
No. Name Awarded For State
1 Shri K J Yesudas Art-Music Kerala
2 Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev Others-Spiritualism Tamil Nadu
3 Shri Sharad Pawar Public Affairs Maharashtra
4 Shri Murli Manohar Joshi Public Affairs Uttar Pradesh
5 Prof. Udipi Ramachandra Rao Science & Engineering Karnataka
6 Late Shri Sunder Lal Patwa (Posthumous) Public Affairs Madhya Pradesh
7 Late Shri PA Sangma (Posthumous) Public Affairs Meghalaya
No Name Awarded for State
8 Shri Vishwa Mohan Bhatt Art-Music Rajasthan
9 Prof. (Dr.) Devi Prasad Dwivedi Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
10 Shri Tehemton Udwadia Medicine Maharashtra
11 Shri Ratna Sundar Maharaj Others-Spiritualism Gujarat
12 Swami Niranjana Nanda Saraswati Yoga Bihar
13 H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn (Foreigner) Literature & Education Thailand
14 Late Shri Cho Ramaswamy (Posthumous) Literature & Education – Journalism Tamil Nadu
No. Name Awarded for State
15 Smt. Basanti Bisht Art-Music Uttarakhand
16 Shri Chemanchery Kunhiraman Nair Art-Dance Kerala
17 Smt. Aruna Mohanty Art-Dance Odisha
18 Smt. Bharathi Vishnuvardhan Art-Cinema Karnataka
19 Shri Sadhu Meher Art-Cinema Odisha
20 Shri T K Murthy Art-Music Tamil Nadu
21 Shri Laishram Birendrakumar Singh Art-Music Manipur
22 Shri Krishna Ram Chaudhary Art-Music Uttar Pradesh
23 Smt. Baoa Devi Art-Painting Bihar
24 Shri Tilak Gitai Art-Painting Rajasthan
25 Dr. Prof. Aekka Yadagiri Rao Art-Sculpture Telangana
26 Shri Jitendra Haripal Art-Music Odisha
27 Shri Kailash Kher Art-Music Maharashtra
28 Smt. Parassala B Ponnammal Art-Music Kerala
29 Smt. Sukri Bommagowda Art-Music Karnataka
30 Shri Mukund Nayak Art-Music Jharkhand
31 Shri Purushottam Upadhyay Art-Music Gujarat
32 Smt. Anuradha Paudwal Art-Music Maharashtra
33 Shri Wareppa Naba Nil Art-Theatre Manipur
34 Shri Tripuraneni Hanuman Chowdary Civil Service Telangana
35 Shri T.K. Viswanathan Civil Service Haryana
36 Shri Kanwal Sibal Civil Service Delhi
37 Shri Birkha Bahadur Limboo Muringla Literature & Education Sikkim
38 Smt. Eli Ahmed Literature & Education Assam
39 Dr. Narendra Kohli Literature & Education Delhi
40 Prof. G. Venkatasubbiah Literature & Education Karnataka
41 Shri Akkitham Achyuthan Namboothiri Literature & Education Kerala
42 Shri Kashi Nath Pandita Literature & Education Jammu & Kashmir
43 Shri Chamu Krishna Shastry Literature & Education Delhi
44 Shri Harihar Kripalu Tripathi Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
45 Shri Michel Danino Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
46 Shri Punam Suri Literature & Education Delhi
47 Shri VG Patel Literature & Education Gujarat
48 Smt. V Koteswaramma Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
49 Shri Balbir Dutt Literature & Education Journalism Jharkhand
50 Smt. Bhawana Somaaya Literature & Education Journalism Maharashtra
51 Shri Vishnu Pandya Literature & Education Journalism Gujarat
52 Dr. Subroto Das Medicine Gujarat
53 Dr. (Smt.) Bhakti Yadav Medicine Madhya Pradesh
54 Dr. Mohammed Abdul Waheed Medicine Telangana
55 Dr. Madan Madhav Godbole Medicine Uttar Pradesh
56 Dr. Devendra Dayabhai Patel Medicine Gujarat
57 Prof. Harkishan Singh Medicine Chandigarh
58 Dr. Mukut Minz Medicine Medicine Chandigarh
59 Shri Arun Kumar Sharma Others-Archaeology Chhattisgarh
60 Shri Sanjeev Kapoor Others-Culinary Maharashtra
61 Smt. Meenakshi Amma Others-Martial Art Kerala
62 Shri Genabhai Dargabhai Patel Others-Agriculture Gujarat
63 Shri Chandrakant Pithawa Science & Engineering Telangana
64 Prof. Ajoy Kumar Ray Science & Engineering West Bengal
65 Shri Chintakindi Mallesham Science & Engineering Andhra Pradesh
66 Shri Jitendra Nath Goswami Science & Engineering Assam
67 Shri Daripalli Ramaiah Social Work Telangana
68 Shri Girish Bhardwaj Social Work Karnataka
69 Shri Karimul Hak Social Work West Bengal
70 Shri Bipin Ganatra Social Work West Bengal
71 Smt. Nivedita Raghunath Bhide Social Work Tamil Nadu
72 Shri Appasaheb Dharmadhikari Social Work Maharashtra
73 Baba Balbir Singh Seechewal Social Work Punjab
74 Shri Virat Kohli Sports-Cricket Delhi
75 Shri Shekar Naik Sports-Cricket Karnataka
76 Shri Vikasa Gowda Sports-Discus Throw Karnataka
77 Smt. Deepa Malik Sports-Athletics Haryana
78 Shri Mariyappan Thangavelu Sports-Athletics Tamil Nadu
79 Smt. Dipa Karmakar Sports-Gymnastics Tripura
80 Shri P R Shreejesh Sports-Hockey Kerala
81 Smt. Sakshi Malik Sports-Wrestling Haryana
82 Shri Mohan Reddy Venkatrama Bodanapu Trade & Industry Telangana
83 Shri Imrat Khan (NRI/PIO) Art-Music USA
84 Shri Anant Agarwal (NRI/PIO) Literature & Education USA
85 Shri H.R. Shah (NRI/PIO) Literature & EducationJournalism USA
86 Late (Smt.) Suniti Solomon (Posthumous) Medicine Tamil Nadu
87 Shri Asoke Kumar Bhattacharyya (Posthumous) Others-Archaeology West Bengal
88 Dr. Mapuskar (Posthumous) Social Work Maharashtra
89 Smt. Anuradha Koirala (Foreigner) Social Work Nepal
SAMAAGATI in collaboration with Indian Ruminations
SAMAAGATI INTERNATIONAL INTERDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE 2017
12 – 14, May 2017
at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Main Theme: Nationalism: Discourse and Contestation
• History of Nation Building
• Nationalism within Internationalization and Globalization
• Ideological Discourse of Nationalism
• Political Culture of Nationalism
• Politics of People-Building vs.Politics of Nation Building
• Societies within Nations
• Loyalty and Identityin Nationalism
• Democracy and Nationalism
• Nationalism in Class Rooms
• Nationalism of Market Economy
• Symbols of Nationalism
• Nationalism and Literature
• Contemporary Nationalism
• Nationalism of Geography
• Civil Society Movements in Nationalism
• Media and Nationalism
• Reflections of Nationalism in Art and Culture
• Future of Nationalism
Dates to Remember:
Last date for receiving abstract: 30th March 2017.
Communicating about selection: 12th April 2017
Last date for receiving full paper: 30th April 2017
Date of conference: 16th& 17th May 2016
Call for papers:
The proposed international multi- disciplinary conference on “Nationalism: Discourse and Contestation is intended for the scholars belonging to various disciplines who are interested in the issues related to Nationalism.
Research papers (hard and soft copy) maybe submitted in English not exceeding 10-12 pages with reference in the format MS-Word, A4 size paper, 1cm margin in all sides, times new Roman , font size 12, line spacing 1.5 on or before 30th April 2017.
An abstract of not more than 500 words should reach along with the registration form on or before March 30th 2017. Both the abstract and full paper may be send through email.
Considering our decision to publish all papers with ISBN number, we will review all abstracts carefully and in detail, It will be ensured that all papers are getting sufficient time to discuss in front of the panel and audience; hence there will be strict procedures for selection.
All the participants have to pay the registration fee as detailed below.
|Delegates||Early Bird Registration||Regular Registration||Spot Registration|
|International||$ 35||$ 50||$ 65|
Registration fee may be remitted as D.D of any Nationalized Bank in favour of Samaagati payable at Thiruvananthapuram along with the registration form after acceptance letter received. Spot registration will be allowed without commitment to accommodation.
The General Secretary, Samaagati, ‘Ushus’, TC 18/37, Alappuram road
Thirumala PO, Thiruvananthapuram, Pin – 695 006, Kerala, India
Phone: 9971084789, 9495941939
Shores of Discrimination and Poverty: the Other Side of Kerala Model of Developmental Experience – Sudheesh Kumar S. A, KeralaFebruary 12th, 2017
Since the beginning of civilizations, fish occupies an important role in our daily lives. Fishing is one of the oldest occupations of human beings. Similarly, fish occupies an important place in Indian mythology, history and tradition. Traditionally, fishing has been the principal avocation for the livelihood of a segment of the population living in the coastal region and on the banks of rivers, lakes and canals. Even though there are diverse kinds of fishing sources, seas and oceans are the major sources particularly from the point of view of economy.
Over the years, fisheries are supporting various sectors of the economy in diverse ways. This is particularly important from the point of view of developing countries like India. Fisheries are a sector which creates large amount of income and employment. In addition the sector is providing inputs to other sectors like processing firms, refrigeration, ice making, transportation, gear & equipments manufacturers, canneries, boat yards etc. Thus fisheries are an important sector where income and employment is getting generated directly or indirectly.
Similarly, the marine fishing sector has manifold roles to play; such as poverty alleviation, employment and livelihood security, food and nutritional security to the poor coastal households. This sector is coming under primary sector in technical terms i.e. one kind of agricultural production. Fisheries development requires effective and efficient use of available resources, skills, capital, machine, money, management finance and market. There should be complementary role inDevelopment of fisheries through Private and Public Sector. Private and Public sector roles here are most interdependent compared to other economic sectors. There is predominant role of private sector in catching, processing and marketing. There is great contribution of scientists, economists, cultural anthropologists, sociologists, fishers or fishery businessmen in framing specialized approaches for fisheries development. With the development of this sector, problems also arise. These problems are technical, economic and social type in nature. Problems arise from the new policies which require skill on the part of Government because these problems are very rigid and complex. Fisheries in general significantly contributes in a) Food and nutritional security b) National Economy c) Employment Generation d) Exports and Earnings e) others.
It is also estimated that, for each person employed in capture fisheries and aquaculture production, about three jobs are produced in secondary activities, including post-harvest processing and marketing. Thus the primary and secondary sectors support the livelihood of a large number of people worldwide.
Fishing is providing a way of life for numerous coastal communities worldwide. The marine fisheries sector aids in poverty alleviation and also provides employment and livelihood security to the coastal households. The fish sector is a source of income and livelihood for millions of people around the world. India has a share of 5.43 percent in the global fish production and is one among the 18 major fish producing countries in the world (the seventh largest fishing nation in the world) with a total coastline of 8118 km with 1537 fish landing centers and 3322 fishing villages.
The industry of fishing has an important role to play in Kerala economy too. The state has a coastal line of 590 km and it is only one tenth of national total coastline. The inshore or coastal waters of 12570sq.kms estimated to yield, on a sustainable basis, about 400,000 tons of fish per annum or about 30 tons per sq.km. This makes Kerala’s coastal waters the most productive in the country. Kerala contribute a major share of marine export of India. Kerala is second to Gujarat in marine fish production during the period 2014-15. However, Kerala’s share has declined over the period since 1990s. The coastal belt of Kerala is about 590 km which spreads across 9 districts viz. Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Ernakulam, Thrissur, Malappuram, Kozhikode, Kannur and Kasargod with 178 fish landing centers and 222 fishing villages. In Kerala there are 602234 fisher folks in 120486 households. As per the 2014 Kerala Marine Fisheries Statistics, 30809 fishing vessels are registered in Kerala, out of which majority are motorized. The current level annual marine fish production is around six lakhs tons per year. A lion’s share of marine fish landings are contributed mainly by the mechanized (56 percent) and motorized (42 percent) sectors. The marine fisheries sector of the state has achieved higher growth compared to the inland sector mainly due to the vast coastline and marine resources embedded with Kerala and contribute 10.13 percent in the state share of GDP from the primary sector (Director of Fisheries, 2014). The marine sector of the state constitutes for more than 25% of the state exports.
Kerala has been considered as one of the major contributor to the country’s seafood exports. The period of 1960 saw the emergence of export oriented approach in the marine fisheries of Kerala with penaeid prawn becoming main attraction (Kurien 1985). The seafood export sector got a fillip due to the mechanization drive. There was an increase from Rs. 183.93 crores (1960-61) to Rs. 3435.85 crores (2012-13) in the seafood exports from Kerala. Even with a 10 percent share of total coastline of India, the marine fisheries sector of the state accounted for 24 percent of the fish production of the country and 40 percent of India’s seafood export earnings during the 1980s (Meynen 1989).
Earlier, marine fisheries sector was considered as a subsistence sector and fish was the cheapest mode of animal protein among the households of to the coastal belts of Kerala. The perish ability factor of the product limited the trade to nearby locations. From a subsistence sector during the pre – independence era, the marine fisheries sector of the state transformed into one of the major export oriented sectors mainly due to the technological changes. However, the transformations were at the cost of the artisanal fishers and those working in the post-harvest activities, especially the women fish vendors. The reverberations in the sector totally ignored the traditional sector. In fact, the development dynamics in the Kerala marine fisheries divided the sector into three sub sectors viz. traditional, motorized and mechanized sectors. The former two are more labour intensive, whereas the latter uses capital intensive techniques and caters to the needs of export oriented and processing market. The results were increased conflicts for resources between various actors both at land and sea, which ultimately resulted in governmental action like the ban on trawling during the monsoons.
But most of the fishing community, in general, is one of the most socially disadvantaged sections in the state. The division among fishing community as traditional ones and modern technology users are important to mention here. The traditional fishing laborers are still using katamaran and kambavalla but the later one are using modern inputs which are capital intensive hence expensive. At present the traditional fisher folk became the most backward community in Kerala and facing discrimination at every front.
This sector has addressing severe challenges with the advent of globalization. Hence the traditional fishers form the most deprived communities in the state who are left out of the overall development process. Mechanization, over the years, opened up the sector a great deal as it began to attract people belonging to non-fishing community but nonetheless this has also resulted in a new form of conflicts-space and species between the traditional and mechanized fishers. But the brunt of the problem now is resource depletion which inter alia resulted in the poverty and exclusion of the traditional fishers who have no other source of living. Employment in this sector is seasonal in nature and technological advancement has made fisher folk more marginalized from the mainstream society due to income inequality and livelihood insecurity. The existing skill of the fishers will not help them to gain employment when the sector is going for high level of technological advancement.
Statement of the Problem & objectives:
Thiruvananthapuram district has 75.5 km long coastal belt where 138911 fishing laborers are engaged that lives in 44 coastal villages in 2013-14. Fish production in Thiruvananthapuram District was 49951 tons as against 35267 tons in 2009-10 registering 40.4% increase during the ten year period which makes the district accounts for 22.08 percent of Kerala state’s marine fish production at present. In spite of increase in fish production and enormous social welfare measures by the government and other agencies like NGOs, the living standards of fisher folk in Trivandrum District especially in Vizhinjam coastal belt are very poor. They are at the lowest ebb of their socio- economic progress. Many of the fishermen houses have no protected drinking water facility, electricity, toilet facilities and water proof of roof. While only 19 percent of fisher folk in Trivandrum District live in terraced houses, other reside in thatched and tiled houses. Only two percent of total fisher folk have education up to college level, 34 percent get educated up to primary level and 19 percent are illiterates. Polio –attack are common sights in the fishing hamlets of Trivandrum District. The mortality rate is very high due to non-availability of hospitals or health centers, superstitions and insensitivity to health and hygiene. The community is facing tremendous constraints with regard to developmental activities and social progress. The discrimination in all level are continuing even now. Considering this, the present study an attempt has been made to study the problems of marine fishing workers, in and out of sea, their need, their living condition, service condition and social issues in the Vizhinjam region of Thiruvananthapuram district. The objectives of the present study are 1) To study about the various kinds of social discrimination faced by fishing community as a whole in the state of Kerala. 3) To draw the socio-economic life of fishing community in the context of general development of Kerala.
Methodology and data source:
This is an empirical one based on survey method. The study, which is largely explorative in nature, uses both Primary and Secondary data. The primary data have been collected from the fisher folk of Vizhinjam. It is collected through semi formal interviews using pre-tested questionnaires. The data collection also includes participatory approaches in the form of discussion. Field based information will be collected through open ended questionnaire. The questionnaire will be administered in a personal face to face manner. But sufficient care will be taken in order to cover as wide a cross section of people as possible across different occupations within fisher folk community. The ten fishermen families were selected in this region through the random sampling method. The secondary data have been collected from reports, journals, economic review, economic survey and websites.We need to employ separate tools for each of the objective because of the complexity of this study. We will use most appropriate tools for analyzing the details of economic problems and social discrimination of the fisher folk.
Socio-economic Issues of Fisher Folk in Vizhinjam Area:
People are the real wealth of nations. That simple truth is sometimes forgotten. Mesmerized by the rise and fall of national incomes (as measured by GDP), we tend to equate human welfare with material wealth. The importance of GDP growth and economics stability should not be understated: both are fundamental to sustained human progress, as is clear in the many countries that suffer from their absence. But the ultimate yardstick for measuring progress us people’s quality of life.
Vizhinjam is situated in the southern coastal belt of Thiruvananthapuram Corporation in Thiruvananthapuram District. Here the majority of populations are Christians followed by Muslims and Hindus. The most of the population are engaged in fishing and fish related activities. Above 90% of the people uses the semi-mechanization of crafts. They had good drainage system. Majority of the people depend on sea for their livelihood but they the Government not provide any aid to the fishing community.
We had interviews, face to face, with ten people at Vizhinjam. Their age profile varies from 19 years to 52 years. This diversity in age profile helps us to get a prolific details of different issues from different perspectives. The attitude and approach of elderly will be definitely different from that of youngsters on every issue. The gender also varies among respondents. There were seven males and three females. Their occupations are different as it represents both fishing and other related activities.
We can note that only males are engaged in fishing i.e. going to sea and catching fish. Fisher folk believe that females are not expected to go to sea for fishing. For them sea is everything or it is a living example of god and women are not allowed to engage in fishing in sea. They are expected to support their men with prayers only. Women are performing other related fishing occupations like processing and trade. Most of the secondary fish sellers are women from these areas only. Considering the mechanization of fishing, there are many opportunities in the motor repairing and work-shops. Men are engaged in such jobs too. Trade especially small shops and restaurants are also providing jobs here. Shops in these areas are mainly engaged in selling those household groceries and goods for daily requirement. It is difficult to spot shops selling electronic goods, vehicles, textiles etc in these areas. People are using shops in nearby big towns for purchasing such things. People here are less interested in educational activities and attainment. Children started to engage in fishing or related activities from the very beginning itself. So that hardly anyone engage in higher education from here. We met only one person who is engaged in higher education from this locality. Educational attainments of fisher folks are conventionally low. The socio-economic conditions of community never encourage educational activities. Almost majority of these people are discontinuing education in high school stage. Now a days those who reaches secondary education shows a slight increase. The survey shows women are educationally better off compared to men here. The only person who is in higher education is a woman. When interviewing even youngsters admitted that education is not an incentive to any of them to improve their socio economic conditions.
Vizhinjam has almost equal number of Muslims and Christians whereas number of Hindus is less. There are religious centers of all religions here. People from outside locality also visit these centers. People of different believes is living in harmony here even though there were communal tensions reported in the neighborhoods.
The survey shows that most of the fisher folk are getting a good amount wages from their occupation. Among them those who are fishing in sea are getting highest. But it is evident that these people are getting confused about daily income. Those who are going to sea are taking minimum two days to reach back. So that whatever they are telling is not daily income. Plus those traders here are working in their own shops so that whatever they earn is becoming their income too. But such responses are giving a less than bright picture of the income earnings among them.
According to the survey most of the homes are accommodating more than four members irrespective of their economic power. We can observe a kind of extended families here yielder children are staying with parents even after marriage is common phenomenon here. The survey traces totally 49 people among which 22 are females (45%)
Compare to other studies this survey shows that population growth rate among fisher folk are getting decreased. The younger families are much smaller in size. But this extended family system is getting complicating considering the residential facilities. The buildings are not sufficient for accommodating these big families. The religious beliefs of families has nothing to with their family structure. Even there we can observe very high daily income; all these families are belonging to BPL category. This is in support of all other studies which trace very high incidence poverty among fisher folk. The comparatively higher daily income is not utilized constructively here; it encourages us to study about the expenditure pattern of them. One of the major items of expenditure is alcohol. The consumption of alcohol is very high among fisher folk particularly in non-Muslim families. Hence the high income is not transformed in to high level of living. The expenditure on education, health and recreation facilities will be comparatively less such a living style will permanently keep fisher folk as back ward.
Other than women all men in the non-Muslim families are using alcohol. Even they some of the despondence not reviled there and there family members addiction towards alcohol, gradually they all said the truth. The religious taboos restricting Muslim members using alcohol. But that does not mean they are utilizing daily income in a healthy way because they too are spending very less for feature in mind. All this families are spending almost 1/3 of the daily income on alcohol. In some of them it is almost half of the income. The expenditure on alcohol is increasing in weekends as well as in festive occasions. We can see that trend when calculating expenditure on alcohol. From the above table we can see that when daily expenditure on alcohol is almost forty percent, it becomes almost fifty when calculated in weekly basis. When such an amount spends on alcohol, it can make multiplier consequences in physical, personal and social life of individuals.
Way of living decides the occurrence of life style diseases. Sixty percentages of respondents are suffering from life style diseases. Thirty percent of respondents are suffering from cirrhosis which causes mainly by alcohol consumption. Considering the poor health infrastructure of the region such a low profile of health is an alarming situation. What we observed during survey was that almost all elder people irrespective of gender are suffering from health issues.
According to the data collected health status of women are better but elder women are suffering from ill-health. What is alarming is that a good majority of people has complaints about primary health facilities in the region. Several studies pointed out the fact that both health and health facilities are at low profile at coastal region. Even though there are primary health centers or medical dispensaries in these areas, they may either lack required medicines or medical experts. We observed that the nearest health center in the area lacks both refrigeration facility and supply of water in wash room. Most of the doctors in such centers are residing in distant places hence their services are lacking at several occasions. Localities depends private health facilities in the city or health camps organized by NGOs and other agencies for medical assistance.
It was difficult for respondents to respond properly about their yearly expenditure pattern. It took several questions and on the spot calculations in order to calculate yearly expenditure pattern among them. Anyway all these families are spending least in education. Food and health is equally sharing the rest.We also believe that these calculations are not reflecting the reality because expenditure on other heads like recreation, loan repayment, capital maintenance etc are not explained by respondents.
Most of the people are living in rented houses. Many of them lost their ancestral properties due to indebtedness. Only two among the respondents has their own houses which are ancestrally received. Over the year’s fisher folk lost rights over their coastal islands throughout the nation. According to the law all the coastal lands are in government control. So it is difficult or impossible for anyone to own land in these regions. But over the years due to some political interventions some of them got title deed over land.
Most of the houses here are not good in construction. Only three houses have latrine facilities. Most of the people, irrespective of gender, are using sea for their daily requirements. Space availability per person within houses are limited. Compare to concrete houses, other required annual maintenance expenditure. During rainy seasons most of them are getting severe damages. But constructing concrete houses in government lands is not possible in the other side. This vicious circle is keeping things difficult for fisher folk. None of these houses, whether thatched or concreted, having water connection. Itis a shocking surprise that even a single building has over tank ability. According to the rules concrete buildings are expected to have over tank facilities. All these people are using public taps for their water requirements. Another source of water is the tanker facility provided by the corporation or by the private agencies (for payment basis). It is difficult to have either bore well or wells in coastal regions. All these houses are electrified. People are using television and refrigeration facilities in their homes. For waste disposal, facilities are very less. So most of the road sides, junctions and coastal shores are dumped with waste.
Even they these families are indebted they are keeping small saving by chitty funds. These chitty funds are utilized for households’ purposes only and the initiative are taken by women particularly. All families have loan burden. Some of them have indebted of more than 5 lakhs. Repayments of these debts are difficult considering the occupational environment. Most of them are laborers only owners here means those who own small shop only none of them have any government jobs or any alternative jobs other than their conventional one like NGNREGS. They receives no subsidy and ultimately they are discriminated in every economic front.
All the fisher folks are facing discrimination structurally. They are not receiving any active government and non-government support in their daily collective style. Their social-economic conditions are not improving over along period of time. It is so embracing to note that even the younger generation of the fisher folks are eventually deciding to stay away from main stream development. Those who studying in educational institution in the city respondent that there class mates are discriminating them in all vocations. Many of them were hearted when they didn’t invited like other (other community) for family functions and personal get-together of friends. In interview whatever the low profile of it they were discriminated among others. It is difficult for a person in the community to have a marriage relationship from outside. All such kinds of discrimination are capping fisher folk in a circle.
Development is becoming fruitful only when it ensures the all together improvement in every section of the society. The coastal belt of Kerala was kept outside of developments of yesterdays. As a result lacks of people who engaged with fishing and related activities were denied spaces in all aspects of socio-economic progress. What we can observe is the structural omission of this community from every development activity.
This study is reflecting the discrimination faced by fisher folk in their everyday life. Lack of economic opportunities restricting social progress and opposite is also true. Even this small attempt was plotting light on the miserable condition of fisher folk in Vizhinjam area. Even though coming under the jurisdiction of Thiruvananthapuram corporation (as well as developed region), these people are facing number of discrimination in everyday life. This study invites many such attempts and positive interventions from all policy makers and other experts to join hands for improving the condition of living in our neighborhoods.
Allen, F. E. Carletti, R. Cull, J. Qian, L. Senbet, and P. Valenzuela (2013), “Resolving the African Financial Development Gap: Cross-Country Comparisons and a Within-Country Study of Kenya”, World Bank Policy Working Paper No. 6592. Washington, DC.
Anand, J.S. (2002), “Self-Help Groups in Empowering Women: Case Study of selected SHGs and NHGs”, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Center for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Discussion Paper: 38-70.
Archari, T. R. T (1994), “A Study of Fisher folk Organizations in Kerala, RAPA Publication (FAO). Balan (1998), “Marine Fish Production in Kerala”, published in Kadalekum Kanivukal (Bounties of the Sea), Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin.
Bene, C. (2003), “When Fishery Rhymes with Poverty? A First Step Beyond the Old”, Parading on Poverty on Small Scale Fisheries”, World Development, 31(6).
Chandrasekera, C. H. M. T. (1990), “Fishery Cooperatives in Asian Countries”, http://www.apfic.org/Archive/symposia/1993/23.pdf, accessed on 12.03.2014.
Charyula and Narayana (1987) ‘Living Condition of Fisher folk in Karnataka’, CMFRI, Cochin.
Copes, P. (1989). Why are fishing incomes often low? A critical review of the conventional wisdom. Discussion Paper 21/89-1, Burnaby, Canada: Institute of Fisheries Analysis, Simon Fraser University
Cunningham, S. (1993), “Fishermen‟ Incomes and Fisheries Management”, Research Paper No. 61, Portsmouth: CEMARE, University of Portsmouth
DADF (2013), “Fisheries Profile of India 2013”, Department of Animal Husbandry Dairying and Fisheries (DADF), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi.
DADF (2014), “ Handbook on Fisheries Statistics 2014”, Department of Animal Husbandry Dairying and Fisheries (DADF), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi.
Director of Fisheries (2014), “Kerala Marine Fisheries Statistics 2013”, Statistical Cell, Directorate of Fisheries, Government of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram.
FAO (2012), “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012”, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
FAO (2014), “Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistics 2012”, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
FAO (2014), “Review of the State of World Marine Fishery Resources”, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 569, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
Government of Kerala Economic Review 2011 and 2012, State Planning Board, Trivandrum.
Government of Kerala, 1980 Marine Fishing regulation Act, Department of Fisheries.
Government of Kerala, 2004, Island fisheries statistics of Kerala 2004, Department of fisheries.
Gupta, K., and Pandit, C. (2007), “Importance of Fishermen’s Cooperatives”, Economic and Political Weekly, 825-827
Ibrahim, P. (1992). Fisheries development on India, New Delhi: Classical Publishing Company.
John Kurian, (1999), ‘Kerala’s Marine Fisheries Development Experience’, Sage Publication India Private Ltd.
Suyambulingan K, Solomon Raj D and B.Maria John (2011) ‘labour conditions of marine fishing workers in Thoothukudi District’ published in Se holden Jubilee year Vol.50.
Kurien, John, (1992), Impact of joint ventures on fish economy, CDS.
Kurien, john, (2005), Securing the future against Tsunamis, EPW, Jan 8,2005
Kurien, John, and Achari, T.R.T, (1990), over fishing along Kerala coast- causes and consequences, EPW, Sep 1-8.
Mock, Greg & Steele, Paul (2006). Power to the poor tapping the wealth of
Narayan L R A, (1999), Remote Sensing and its Applications, University Press, Hyderabad
Narayana Kurup.K, Kuttikrishnan Nair I, Annan.V.P, Beena M.Rand Latha K Ambedkar (2007), “An appraisal of the marine fisheries of Karnataka and Goa. Environment. 48 (1)
Rajan, J. B. (2002). Labour Mobility in the Small – scale fisheries Sector of Kerala Discussion Paper No. 44. Kerala research Programme on local development, Trivandrum: Center for Development Studies.
Rajan, J.B. (2000). The fishing economy of Kerala analysis of an intervention. Chathanoor, Kollam: Sajilee Publishing House .
Reddy.V.R 2001, Waterhed development ad livelihood security : An assessment of linkage and impact project Report centro for economic and social studies, Hydreabad.
Sen Amartya, 1984, Resources. Values and Development; Oxford
Sen. A. ,1999 Development as Freedom, Alfred A Knopf, New York.
Shyjan D (2009) ‘Human Development Report of the fisher folk in Kerala’ , M.Phil Dissertation, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala
Smith, I.R. (1979), ‘A Research Framework for Traditional Fisheries”, ICLARM Stud.Rev. (2):40p., University Press, New Delhi.
Bhavani, V (1988), ‘Food and Nutritional Status of Small Scale Fisher folk in India,’’ East Coast Status,
Varghese Panicker.T (2011)Political and Economic Weekly “Socio-Economic Problems of minority communities in India. S.E Golden Jubiliee year Vol 50..
Sudheesh Kumar S. A
Dept. of Economics, School of Distance Education,
Kariavattom Campus, University of Kerala